How Are Tax Returns Filed?

So you’ve earned your income and paid your taxes throughout the year, and now it’s time to file your tax returns. But how exactly are tax returns filed? It’s a question that many individuals find themselves asking as the tax season approaches. In this article, we’ll walk you through the process, step by step, of how to file your tax returns effectively and efficiently. From gathering your necessary documents to choosing the right filing method, we’ve got you covered. By the end of this article, you’ll have a clearer understanding of how to navigate the sometimes daunting world of tax filing.

Methods of Filing Tax Returns

Filing tax returns is an essential task that many individuals in the United States have to complete each year. To make the tax filing process convenient, there are two primary methods of filing tax returns: paper filing and electronic filing. Each method has its advantages and considerations, so it is important to understand the differences between them to choose the most suitable option for you.

Paper Filing


Paper filing, as the name suggests, involves physically filling out the tax return forms and mailing them to the appropriate tax authorities. This traditional method has been in use for many years and was the only available option before electronic filing came into the picture. While paper filing may seem old-fashioned in today’s digital age, it still has its benefits and is preferred by some individuals.

Forms and Documents Required

Before you can begin the paper filing process, you need to gather all the necessary forms and documents. These may include your W-2 forms from your employer, 1099 forms for any additional income, and any other relevant documents related to deductions or credits you may be claiming. You will also need to have a copy of the appropriate tax return form for your situation, such as Form 1040, Form 1040A, or Form 1040EZ.

Preparing the Paper Tax Return

Once you have collected all the required forms and documents, you can start preparing your paper tax return. This involves carefully following the instructions provided on the tax return form and filling in all the necessary information accurately. It is crucial to double-check all the numbers and calculations to minimize the risk of errors. Additionally, you should ensure that you enter your personal information, such as your name, address, and Social Security number, correctly.

Mailing the Paper Tax Return

After completing the paper tax return, it is time to mail it to the appropriate tax authorities. The mailing address depends on your location, so it is important to check the instructions or visit the IRS website to find the correct address. When sending your tax return, it is advisable to use certified mail or a tracking service to ensure that it reaches its destination safely and can be tracked if necessary.

Electronic Filing


Electronic filing, also known as e-filing, has become increasingly popular in recent years due to its convenience and efficiency. This method allows individuals to file their tax returns electronically, eliminating the need for paper forms and physically mailing documents. E-filing offers several advantages over paper filing, making it an attractive option for many taxpayers.

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Filing through Tax Preparation Software

One way to file your tax return electronically is by using tax preparation software. There are various software options available, both free and paid, that guide you through the tax filing process. These software programs usually have a user-friendly interface and comprehensive features to accurately calculate your taxes and identify potential deductions or credits. Once you have completed the tax return using the software, you can submit it electronically directly from the program.

Filing through Online Platforms

Another electronic filing option is to use online platforms provided by tax authorities or authorized third-party providers. These platforms allow you to fill out your tax return online, providing a more intuitive and streamlined experience compared to traditional paper filing. Some online platforms also offer additional services like tax advice or live chat support to assist taxpayers during the filing process. Once you have entered all the required information, you can submit your tax return electronically through the online platform.

Benefits of Electronic Filing

Electronic filing offers several benefits that make it an appealing choice for many taxpayers. One significant advantage is the speed at which tax returns are processed. When filing electronically, the tax authorities can process your return much faster compared to paper filing, which means you may receive any potential refund sooner. Additionally, e-filing reduces the possibility of errors since the software or online platform automatically performs calculations and checks for common errors. Finally, electronic filing provides a confirmation receipt, giving you peace of mind that your tax return has been successfully submitted.

Criteria for Electronic Filing

While electronic filing is widely available and convenient, it is important to be aware of certain criteria that determine whether you are eligible to file your tax return electronically.

Income Threshold

One of the primary criteria is the income threshold. Generally, if your income exceeds a certain amount, you may be required to file a paper return instead of electronically. The income threshold varies each year and depends on your filing status and age. It is important to check the specific threshold applicable to your situation to ensure compliance with the tax regulations.

Filing Status

Your filing status also plays a role in determining whether you can file your tax return electronically. Most filing statuses, including single, married filing jointly, married filing separately, and head of household, are eligible for electronic filing. However, if you are filing as a qualifying widow(er) with a dependent child, electronic filing may not be available, and you may need to file a paper return.

Types of Forms

The type of tax return form you are filing also influences your eligibility for electronic filing. Generally, the more complex your tax situation, the more limited your options might be for electronic filing. For example, if you have self-employment income, rental income, or need to claim certain credits or deductions, you may need to file a paper return.

Limitations on Deductions and Credits

Certain deductions and credits may have restrictions or limitations when it comes to electronic filing. For instance, if you are claiming a deduction that requires additional documentation to be attached to your tax return, you may have to file a paper return. It is essential to carefully review the instructions for each deduction or credit you plan to claim to determine if electronic filing is an option.

Choosing the Appropriate Form

When preparing your tax return, it is essential to choose the appropriate form that matches your tax situation. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) provides three main tax return forms: Form 1040, Form 1040A, and Form 1040EZ. Each form has its own eligibility criteria and complexity level, so it is important to understand the differences to select the right one for your needs.

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Form 1040

Form 1040 is the most comprehensive tax return form and is suitable for individuals with more complex tax situations. It allows you to report various types of income, claim a wide range of deductions and credits, and provides ample space for additional explanations or calculations.

Form 1040A

Form 1040A is a simplified version of Form 1040 and is intended for taxpayers with relatively straightforward tax situations. While it offers fewer options for deductions and credits compared to Form 1040, it is still suitable for individuals who do not have complex investments or business activities.

Form 1040EZ

Form 1040EZ is the simplest tax return form and is designed for individuals with very basic tax situations. It has limited options for deductions and credits and is typically used by taxpayers who have a straightforward employment income with no dependents.

Filing Status Options

When filing your tax return, it is important to determine your filing status accurately. Your filing status determines your tax rate, eligibility for certain deductions or credits, as well as your overall tax liability. The IRS provides five filing status options, each with its own requirements and considerations.


The single filing status applies to individuals who are unmarried or legally separated. If you are not married or in a registered domestic partnership as of the last day of the tax year, you generally qualify for the single status. This status also applies if you are divorced or have obtained a decree of separate maintenance.

Married Filing Jointly

Married individuals have the option to file their tax returns jointly. This means that both spouses combine their income, deductions, and credits on a single tax return. The married filing jointly status is often beneficial as it may result in a lower overall tax liability compared to filing separately. However, it is important to consider both spouses’ incomes and potential implications before choosing this filing status.

Married Filing Separately

Married individuals also have the option to file separate tax returns. This means that each spouse reports their income, deductions, and credits on separate tax returns. Filing separately may be advantageous in certain situations, such as when one spouse has significant medical expenses that could be deductible. However, it is crucial to carefully evaluate the potential impact on your overall tax liability before choosing this filing status.

Head of Household

The head of household filing status is available to unmarried individuals who have dependents. To qualify for this status, you must have paid more than half the cost of keeping up a home for yourself and a qualifying person, such as a child or relative. The head of household status typically offers more favorable tax rates and a higher standard deduction compared to the single filer status.

Qualifying Widow(er) with Dependent Child

If your spouse passed away within the last two years, and you have a dependent child, you may be eligible to file as a qualifying widow(er) with a dependent child. This filing status provides benefits similar to the married filing jointly status for the two years following your spouse’s death. It allows you to use the married filing jointly tax rates and claim certain deductions and credits.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

When filing your tax return, it is crucial to be diligent and accurate to avoid common mistakes that could potentially lead to penalties or delays in processing. Here are some common errors to watch out for:

Mathematical Errors

Simple calculation mistakes can have a significant impact on your tax return. It is essential to double-check all calculations and ensure that you enter the correct numbers in the appropriate fields. Utilizing tax preparation software or online platforms can minimize the risk of mathematical errors.

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Incorrect Social Security Numbers

Entering incorrect Social Security numbers for yourself, your spouse, or your dependents is a common mistake that can be easily avoided. Always verify that you have accurately entered the nine-digit Social Security numbers to ensure the IRS can match the information with their records.

Filing Status Errors

Choosing the wrong filing status can have both financial and legal consequences. Take the time to carefully evaluate your situation and select the appropriate filing status applicable to your circumstances. Review the IRS guidelines or seek professional guidance if needed.

Omission of Signatures

Many taxpayers forget to sign their tax returns, which can result in an invalid filing. It is crucial to sign and date your tax return to make it legally binding. If filing jointly, both spouses must sign the return.

Incorrect Bank Account Information

If you are expecting a tax refund and choose direct deposit, it is important to provide accurate bank account information. Incorrect account numbers or routing numbers can lead to delays in receiving your refund. Double-check your bank account details before submitting your tax return.

Filing Deadlines

Understanding the filing deadlines is crucial to avoid penalties and ensure a smooth tax filing process. The two primary deadlines to keep in mind are the regular filing deadline and the extension request deadline.

Regular Filing Deadline

The regular filing deadline for most taxpayers falls on April 15 of each year. This means that you must submit your tax return, either electronically or by mail, before April 15 to meet the deadline. However, if April 15 falls on a weekend or a holiday, the deadline is generally extended to the next business day.

Extension Request Deadline

If you need additional time to complete your tax return, you have the option to request an extension. The extension allows you an additional six months, extending the filing deadline to October 15. To request an extension, you need to submit Form 4868, either electronically or by mail, before the regular filing deadline of April 15.

Consequences of Late Filing

Failing to file your tax return by the applicable deadline can result in penalties and interest charges. The penalties may vary depending on the amount of tax you owe and the length of the delay. It is important to prioritize timely filing to avoid unnecessary financial repercussions and stay compliant with the tax laws.

Seeking Professional Help

While filing your tax return yourself is feasible for many individuals, some tax situations may require professional assistance. Here are a few options to consider if you need help with your tax return:

Certified Public Accountants (CPAs)

Certified Public Accountants, or CPAs, are licensed professionals who specialize in accounting and taxation. They can provide comprehensive tax planning and preparation services, as well as personalized advice tailored to your specific situation. CPAs are well-versed in the complexities of the tax code and can help you navigate through them effectively.

Enrolled Agents (EAs)

Enrolled Agents, or EAs, are tax professionals authorized by the IRS to represent taxpayers in tax matters. They possess the highest level of expertise and extensive knowledge in all areas of taxation. EAs can assist you with tax return preparation, tax planning, and represent you in case of an audit or other tax-related issues.

Tax Attorneys

Tax attorneys are legal professionals who specialize in tax law. They can provide guidance on complex tax issues, help with tax planning, and represent you in tax disputes or legal proceedings. If you have a particularly complex tax situation or anticipate legal complications, consulting a tax attorney may be beneficial.

Tax Preparation Services

Various tax preparation services are available both online and in person. These services offer tax return preparation and filing assistance for individuals with different tax situations. They often utilize sophisticated software programs to streamline the process and provide accurate calculations and advice.


Filing tax returns may seem like a daunting task, but with the right knowledge and resources, it can be a manageable process. Understanding the different methods of filing, such as paper filing and electronic filing, allows you to choose the most convenient option for your needs. Ensuring accuracy, choosing the appropriate form, selecting the correct filing status, and avoiding common mistakes are crucial steps to successfully file your tax return. If needed, seeking professional help from CPAs, EAs, tax attorneys, or tax preparation services can provide additional guidance and expertise. By taking the time to understand the tax filing process and following the necessary steps, you can fulfill your tax obligations efficiently and with confidence.